The Bible authorizes female elders, per some Church of Christ congregations.

Part 1 of this article series described how a growing number of Church of Christ congregations have, after closely studying scripture, lifted their prohibition on women speaking in the worship assembly, introduces 10 that have done so, and cites a (incomplete) list of gender-inclusive Churches of Christ maintained by Wiley Clarkson at Where the Spirit Leads.

These congregations differ in how they handled the question of appointing women as elders.

A few indicate it is scriptural to appoint female elders (some postponing implementation), some deferred the decision until later, and some decided scripture requires elders to be men.  Other congregations approached the issue similarly.

Scripture Authorizing Female Elders

Below is a description of four ways scripture authorizes female elders from various viewpoints.  They are provided after the traditional interpretation is given as background.  Each is described mostly from the viewpoint of that interpretation.

The four are:

#1:  The Bible authorizes male elders in some verses (referring to “husband of one wife”) and authorizes female elders in some other, previously misperceived verses, including 1 Tim 3:11 (female elders (overseers) and deacons are to act in the same way as stated for male elders and deacons) and Titus 2:3-5 (using the Greek term for female elders).

#2:  The statement that an elder be the “husband of one wife” is not a specific rule for today because the surrounding Biblical text sends a very clear signal that its specific requirements apply to the culture, time, and people to which it was written approximately 1900 years ago and not to today—- these signals include that it has rules that men lift holy hands when praying, women not wear gold, widows not receive assistance of the church unless they are known for washing Christians’ feet, and slaves obey their masters, etc., which are obviously applicable to the 1st century.  Those, passages express principles for today rather than specific rules for today and accordingly, while faithfulness to one’s spouse is needed today, “husband of one wife” is not.

#3:  The qualifications expressed in 1 Tim 3 and Titus 1 were not meant as a check-list of requirements in the first place, but were meant as an expression of a model type of person for elders to aspire to.  No one — not Jesus, not the Apostle Paul, and not your elders — could serve as an elder if those were a literal, prerequisite checklist.  They simply express the concept that an elder should strive to be upstanding in God’s and people’s view.  And each item is considered in context with the whole (e.g., the actions of your children are considered, if you have children, along with the rest of your character, actions, and relevant qualifications).

#4:  God asks women throughout the Bible to speak to, teach, lead, and have authority over men, the very functions of an overseer or elder in a congregation, so God asks women to serve as elder.  There are more than 20 passages in the Bible that do so.  Women are are authorized and told to use the gifts they received in 1 Peter 4:10-11, to serve others and to speak “as one who speaks the very words of God” and “with the strength God provides.”  It is contrary to God’s expressed will to block women from this role and these functions.

Applicable to all four, note one way we know the Apostle Paul did not think “husband of one wife” barred women from serving as elder is that he used the same phrase, “husband of one wife,” to refer to deacons (1 Tim 3:12) and Paul says Phoebe is a deacon (Romans 16:1-2).  It is well recognized now that 1 Tim 3:11 just as likely, many say more likely, refers to at least female deacons rather than deacon’s wives.

Each Independent

Each of these four reasons are independent.  That is, any one of them is sufficient to appoint women as elders.

Traditional Interpretation:  Elders today must be male because the Bible refers only to male elders.

People generally point only to two passages that address qualifications for being an elder or overseer of a church:  1 Tim 3:1-7 and Titus 1:5-9. (1 Peter 5:1-4 is sometimes referenced, too.)

The traditional view is as follows:

(a)  1 Tim 3:1-7 appears in a letter from Paul to Timothy.  It does not say “elders must be men,” but since the passage uses only male pronouns in referring to overseers and says that the overseer must be faithful to “his wife” (or must be “the husband of one wife”), churches infer that overseers (aka elders) must be men.

The passage:

“… Now the overseer is to be above reproach, faithful to his wife, temperate, self-controlled, respectable, hospitable, able to teach, not given to drunkenness, …. He must manage his own family well and see that his children obey him, and he must do so in a manner worthy of full respect. (If anyone does not know how to manage his own family, how can he take care of God’s church?)  He must not be a recent convert, or he may become conceited and fall under the same judgment as the devil. He must also have a good reputation with outsiders, so that he will not fall into disgrace ….”

Note that the King James Version says this:

This is a true saying, if a man desire the office of a bishop, he desireth a good work.

A bishop then must be blameless, the husband of one wife, vigilant, sober, of good behaviour, given to hospitality, apt to teach;

Not given to wine, no striker, not greedy of filthy lucre; but patient, not a brawler, not covetous;

One that ruleth well his own house, having his children in subjection with all gravity;

(For if a man know not how to rule his own house, how shall he take care of the church of God?)

Not a novice, lest being lifted up with pride he fall into the condemnation of the devil.

Moreover he must have a good report of them which are without; lest he fall into reproach and the snare of the devil.

 

Notice it says at the outset that if “a man” desires the office and then refers throughout to “he,” “his,” “man,” etc.  You can see how a reader would understand that the person filling this role has to be a man.

But in not a single instance does the word man, he, his, etc., appear in the original Greek.  Not a single instance.  Not one.

The translators assumed that an elder / bishop has to be a man, so they translated it to appear in the Bible as if it has to be a man.  This is the way it appeared — and continues to appear — for centuries!

So, when all these people say an elder has to be a man, a big part of the reason is that they have centuries of teaching based on the Bible that virtually every one used that says an elder has to be a man.  But that is not what the Bible says.  It does not say it even a single time.

The only thing it says that is even in the ballpark is that it says “husband  of one wife.”  And so the fundamentalists, those who refuse to believe that their ancestors could have possibly been wrong about this, and those who simply do not women to serve as elders, have a theory that says that God told us women cannot be elders by planting it in a side comment in a way that simply does not make sense.  But they are sticking to it.  But I digress.

(b) Titus 1:5-9 appears in a letter from Paul to Titus.  In it, Paul asks Titus to “appoint elders in every town, as I directed you.”  It says an “elder must be … faithful to his wife” (or “the husband  of one wife”), “whose children believe ….”  Since Paul indicates the elder must be “the husband of one wife,” elders must be men.

The passage:

“The reason I left you in Crete was that you might put in order what was left unfinished and appoint elders in every town, as I directed you. An elder must be blameless, faithful to his wife, a man whose children believe and are not open to the charge of being wild and disobedient.  … [H]e must be blameless—not overbearing, not quick-tempered, not given to drunkenness, …. Rather, he must be hospitable, one … who is self-controlled, upright, holy and disciplined. He must hold firmly to the trustworthy message as it has been taught, so that he can encourage others by sound doctrine ….”

Since the Bible does not refer to a female elder, female elders are not authorized by God, per the traditional interpretation.

Views Today

The view of some churches today, after studying scripture on the matter, is as follows (one or more of these):

#1:  The Bible refers to female elders, so it is fine to appoint female elders today.

(a)  1 Tim 3:11 refers to female elders and/or deacons.  After describing qualifications for male elders (1 Tim 3:1-7) and male deacons (3:8-10), Paul addresses qualifications for female elders and/or deacons.  Paul does it in a short-hand manner, after already having given qualifications for elders and deacons, indicating women need to have generally the same kind of qualifications as men.  He does it in an aside in verse 11, then returns to additional qualifications for male deacons in verse 12 and closes as to both in verse 13. 

Verse 11:

In the same way, the women are to be worthy of respect, not malicious talkers but temperate and trustworthy in everything.”

Verse 11 was once viewed as referring to wives of deacons, but it uses the same word in plural form (gynaikas) used in 1 Tim 2:12 in singular form (gynaiki) that can mean either woman/women or wife/wives, and it likely means the same thing in both.  (Of course, many view 1 Tim 2:12 as referring to a wife/husband relationship.).  Today, even very conservative scholars acknowledge that verse 11 can mean at least female deacons.

(b)  Titus 2:3-5 refers to qualifications for female elders. 

Titus 2:3 refers to presybytidas, the feminine plural form of the same masculine plural form used in Titus 1:5 widely acknowledged as referring to male elders, presybterous.  Since Titus 2:3 uses the feminine form of the word used in Titus 1:5 that indisputably refers to male elders, Titus 2:3 refers to and gives the qualifications for female elders. 

The passage:

“Likewise, teach the presybytidas to be reverent in the way they live, not to be slanderers or addicted to much wine, but to teach what is good. Then they can urge the younger women to love their husbands and children, to be self-controlled and pure, to be busy at home, to be kind, and to be subject to their husbands, so that no one will malign the word of God.”

(c)  Indeed, Titus 2:3 parallels the same types of qualifications given in 1 Tim 3 for male elders (some parallel examples noted with like numbers between the two passages, right before the relevant parallel subjects):

1 Tim 3

Titus 2

“… Now the overseer is to be (1) above reproach, (2) faithful to his wife, (3) temperate, (4) self-controlled, (5) respectable, (6) hospitable, (7) able to teach, (8) not given to drunkenness, …. He must (9) manage his own family well and see that his children obey him, and he must do so in a manner (10) worthy of full respect. (If anyone does not know how to manage his own family, (11) how can he take care of God’s church?)   ….”  “Likewise, teach the presybytidas to be (1) reverent in the way they live, (8) not to be slanderers or addicted to much wine, but to (7) teach what is good. Then they can urge the younger women to (9) love their husbands and children, to be (3-4) self-controlled and (5, 10) pure, to be (9) busy at home, to be (6) kind, and to be (2) subject to their husbands, (11) so that no one will malign the word of God.”

 

(d)  1 Tim 3:11 and Titus 2:2-3 have not traditionally been translated in the major translations as elder, likely because of the assumption in the past that women could not be elders, somewhat similar to how Junia in Romans 16:7 was changed and written as the male name Junias for a very long time, likely because of the assumption that women could not be apostles.  (A few translations translate Titus 2 as “elder” or “elder women,” such as the Aramaic Bible in Plain English and Darby Bible.)  People are waking up to this now. (1 Tim 5:9-10 might also refer to female elders, referring to calling out from among the others only if she is more senior, be the wife of one husband, etc.)

Thus, the Bible explicitly refers to qualifications for female elders, authorizing female elders today.

#2:  The passages traditionally cited as addressing elder qualifications— in 1 Tim 3 and  Titus 1 — do so for a specific time, culture, people, etc., and thus express general principles for today rather than specific rules for today.

(a)  Both 1 Timothy and Titus were written as personal letters from Paul to Timothy and Titus, respectively.  (1 Tim 1:1-2; Titus 1)  They had a history and knew how one another communicated.  The letters were written to explain to Timothy and Titus how to deal with specific issues in specific cities at specific times.  (e.g., 1 Tim 1:1-7, 18-20; Titus 1)

They were completions of conversations Paul and Timothy and Titus had already begun (e.g., Tim 1:5), so they might have simply already identified some male candidates or had discussed particular situations and needs and were continuing their conversation by letter.

(b)  The letters include multiple matters that are for a particular time, culture, people, etc.  These include:

  • I want the men everywhere to pray, lifting up holy hands ….” (1 Tim 2:8)
  • I also want the women to dress … not with elaborate hairstyles or gold or pearls …” (1 Tim 2:9)
  • “No widow may be put on the list of widows unless she is over sixty, has been faithful to her husband, and is well known for her good deeds, such as bringing up children, … [and] washing the feet of the Lord’s people ….” (1 Tim 5:9-10)
  • Teach slaves to be subject to their masters in everything, to try to please them, not to talk back to them ….” (Titus 2:9)
  •  “[D]o your best to come to me at Nicopolis, because I have decided to winter there.” (Titus 3:12)
  •  “Do everything you can to help Zenas the lawyer and Apollos on their way and see that they have everything they need.” (Titus 3:13)

These are not commands for us today, but are matters from which we can draw guidance from their principles.  The same is true for “husband of one wife” and the collective group of qualifications.

It is hypocritical to insist that only men can be elders while not insisting that men lift up holy hands when they pray, that no woman with braid hair or wearing gold or pearls can enter the church, that widows cannot receive assistance unless they have washed the feet of many Christians, slaves must be subject to their masters and not talk back, that we go to Nicopolis, and that we do everything we can to help lawyers and see they have everything they need.

That is, these are strong signals that statements in 1 Timothy or Titus that only men can be elders are not commands and only the principles from those statements (e.g., elders should be people worthy of respect, they should be faithful to their spouse, etc.) are to be used as criteria for elders today.

(c)  This is confirmed by passages throughout the Bible in which God affirms women and men taking on the same roles.

Notably, for example, in Genesis 1:26-31, God blesses and gives the same role to women and men:

“God said, “Let us make mankind in our image, in our likeness, so that they may rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky, over the livestock and all the wild animals, and over all the creatures that move along the ground.”

So God created mankind in his own image, in the image of God he created themmale and female he created them.

God blessed them and said to them, “Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth and subdue it. Rule over the fish in the sea and the birds in the sky and over every living creature that moves on the ground.”

Then God said, “I give you every seed-bearing plant on the face of the whole earth and every tree that has fruit with seed in it. They will be yours for food. … And it was so. …”

And Galatians 3:28, as another example, says:

“There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.”

(d)  Saying that these commands of 1 Tim or Titus ought to be followed in the household of God or in all the churches or concepts along those lines is not contrary to the concept that the specific commands are just for a particular time, culture, or people, etc., while the principles or lessons of the commands are timeless, for example, just like the specific commands to lift holy hands, not  wear gold or pearls, wash feet, and teach slaves to be subject to their masters while their principles and lessons are timeless.

Accordingly, any portion of 1 Tim or Titus that suggests men as elders is highly likely, at most, a specific time-and-culture reference and it is inappropriate to follow that aspect as a command for all time.  Instead, the principles of the passage (such as upstanding Christians ought to be appointed) should be followed, as is done with these other passages in 1 Tim and Titus.

#3:  1 Tim 3 and Titus 1 were meant in the first place as (a) non-literal principles or guidelines, not a literal check-list, and (b) not prerequisites for a job.

(a) First, were the “qualifications” in 1 Tim 3 and Titus 1 meant in the first place as (i) a check-list of literal requirements such that a candidate has to meet every single one of them to “qualify” and remain an elder or deacon or (ii) guidelines or principles of the kind of person sought?

You probably think your church falls into category (i), but it probably falls into category (ii).

Read 1 Timothy 3 and Titus 1 literally as a check-list of qualifications and  think about your elders and deacons.

Here are some items on the literal check-list (there are more).

Do your elders meet all these? —

  1. above even being able to express disapproval or disappointment about them at all (“above reproach”) (who on the planet meets this qualification?) (3:2)
  2. currently married (“husband”) (cannot be single, divorced, or widowed)
  3. husband of one wife (married to only one woman; cannot be divorced or widowed and remarried)
  4. man
  5. moderate in all things (“temperate”) (do they own a large home? an unnecessary or fancy car? fancy clothes? take fancy or above-average vacation?)
  6. self-controlled (does he stay under control at all times?)
  7. hospitable (do they open up their home regularly? do they welcome people into their home? are they friendly?)
  8. able to teach (are they able to get up on their feet and speak in front of people?)
  9. never has one too many beers or glasses of wine (3:3)
  10. has a family (3:4)
  11. manages his own family (does he manage his family?  or does his wife help manage the family?)
  12. his children obey him (do they ever disobey?)
  13. he makes sure his children obey him (“see that his children obey him”)
  14. must not be a recent convert (3:6)
  15. must have a good reputation with outsiders (3:7)
  16. has more than one child (must have “children”) (1 Tim 3:4) (Titus 1:6) 
  17. all of his children must be believers and faithful (Titus 1:6) (are any of his children non-believers? do they go to non-churches of Christ? are they faithful?)
  18. none of his children can be open even to the charge of being wild or unruly (how are his children behaving? could anyone plausibly say any one of his children are wild or unruly?)
  19. none of his children can be open even to the charge of being disobedient (have any of them sinned publicly? is that obedient? could anyone plausibly say they are wild?)
  20. “blameless” / “above reproach” (blameless is a high standard, basically never blame-able; hence the not ever / always … Who on the planet meets this standard?)
  21. not ever overbearing (1:7)
  22. not ever quick-tempered
  23. always hospitable (1:8)
  24. always “holy”
  25. always disciplined / temperate / self-controlled (is he overweight? does he always eat right? Let’s take a look at his plate(s) at the next church pot-luck. Has he ever had any financial problems? Has he ever had one too many beers?)
  26. encourages others by sound doctrine (does he speak out?) (1:9) 

Would the Apostle Paul, the author of 1 Tim and Titus, qualify as an elder under a literal, check-list approach?

He is missing several of the literal check-list items.  He was not the husband of one wife.  He did not have children.  He did not have a good reputation with outsiders.

Would Jesus qualify as an elder under a literal, check-list approach?

He, too, is missing several of the literal check-list items.

Do your elders qualify as elders?

No, no one but Jesus is above reproach, blameless, and holy.

And odds are good that do not meet at least one other of these qualifications, too (moderate in all things?  what about their kids (any can be said to be wild? non-believer? ever not obey? open to the charge of being disobedient or wild?)  always disciplined (are they overweight?) only one child? …..)

It is OK for a person to be an elder without one or more of the check-list items?  Like … “a man”?  Like “husband of one wife”?

So, point #1:  It would make much more sense, for example, to realize that “husband of one wife” indicates that if the person is a husband, then to be an elder they need to be married to only one woman (and is not a polygamist), rather than exclude both the writer of the letter (the Apostle Paul) and the savior of the world and the head of the church (Jesus) from eligibility as an elder.

(In some scholars’ view, what is often translated “husband of one wife”—- in the Greek, “one woman man”—may have have been simply used as an idiom then for “monogamous” and thus gender-inclusive in the first place.)

(b) And point #2:  The “qualifications” in 1 Tim 3 and Titus 1 are not a set of check-list requirements or qualifications in the first place.

They are simply expressions of guidelines to which an elder should aspire to live while being an elder.  They are not pre-requisites for the job.

You can see this in part in Titus 1, as it says “[a]n elder must be”–not that someone who wants to be an elder must be.  It is the same with 1 Timothy 3.  Although it notes “whoever aspires to be an overseer desires a noble task,” it goes on to say how an overseer is “to be”—i.e., while being an overseer—rather than stating requirements for a job candidate. 

That is, 1 Tim and Titus 1 are merely assuming that Timothy and Titus have appointed a male while the passages are expressing how an elder should live.  They are not saying that Timothy and  Titus must appoint a male.

(c)

And point #3:  These guidelines are not a check-list.  They are an aspirational expression.  No one lives up to all those items.

(d)  Thus, 1 Tim 3 and 1 Tim are not “literal check-list qualifications” for becoming and remaining an elder and,  accordingly, “man” is not a literal check-list requirement for becoming an elder.

#4:  God asks women throughout the Bible to serve in the functions that people now want to block them from and then tells them serve.

There are more than 20 passages in the Bible asking women to speak to, teach, lead, and have authority over men, the functions of an overseer or elder in a congregation that people now argue women are blocked from.  Deborah was a prophet and lead all of Israel.  (Judges 4-5)  God appointed female prophets.  Female prophets included Anna, who prophesied in the Temple to men (Luke 2:36-38), Philips’ daughters (Acts 21:8-9), Miriam (Exodus 15:20), Noadiah (Neh 6:14), and many others (Acts 2:17-18; 1 Cor 11:5).  God asks women over and over and over again to speak to, teach, lead, and have authority over men, in an assembly and elsewhere, just as God asks men to do so.

God then tells women (and men):  “Each of you should use whatever gift you have received to serve others, as faithful stewards of God’s grace in its various forms.  If anyone speaks, they should do so as one who speaks the very words of God.  If anyone serves, they should do so with the strength God provides, so that in all things God may be praised through Jesus Christ. ….”  (1 Peter 4:10-11)

God asks women not to sit on the sideline with their gifts.  It is a sin to block them from serving in where they can serve others, in  its various forms, speaking as the one who speaks the very words of God.  In none of those instances would or should they be limited.  It is contrary to God’s will and a sin to block them.

Scripture Indicates Throughout That Women May Be Elders

The Apostle Paul himself indicates “husband of one wife” was not intended to express that women cannot serve in the role.  The Bible expresses that deacons, too, should be “the husbands of one wife” (1 Tim 3:12), and Paul says Phoebe is a deacon (Romans 16:1-2) and it is acknowledged even by conservative scholars that 1 Tim 3:11 just as likely, many say more likely, refers to at least female deacons rather than deacon’s wives.  Thus, we have it from Paul that “husband of one wife” was not expressed as a qualification for all.

Indeed, elders and deacons are discussed by naming the role itself only 4 times in the New Testament and females are discussed explicitly 3 out of those 4 times and are implied the 4th time. Males are discussed only 3 of the 4 times, so females are actually discussed more in relation to elders and deacons.  Elders and deacons are discussed in Romans 16:1-2 (female deacon identified by name, Phoebe); 1 Tim 3 (elders and deacons, males discussed explicitly and females discussed explicitly in v 11), Titus (male elders (1:5-9) and female elders (2:2-3) discussed explicitly), and 1 Peter 5 (male elder Peter exhorting elders, using masculine plural but masculine plurals often used to indicate both male and female persons present).

And the functions of elder and deacon are discussed in the Bible with reference to women.  For example —

  • serving as an example (1 Peter 5:3) (e.g., Titus 2:3-5)
  • keep watch over others (Acts 20:28; 1 Peter 5:2) (e.g.,  Matthew 23:27)
  • labor in the word and teaching (1 Tim 5:17) (e.g., 2 Kings 22:11-20; Acts 18:24-26; Titus 2:3-5; 1 Cor 11:5, 14:23-25; Luke 2:25-38; John 20:16-18; Matt 28:9-10)
  • manage own family well (1 Tim 3:4) (e.g., Proverbs 31:15; Titus 2:3-5; 1 Tim 5:14)
  • have a good reputation with outsiders (1 Tim 3:7) (e.g., Proverbs 31:31)
  • show hospitality (Titus 1:8) (e.g., 1 Tim 5:10)
  • encourage others by sound teaching and refute those who oppose it (Titus 1:9) (e.g., 2 Kings 22:11-20; Acts 18:24-26)
  • be trustworthy (Acts 14:23) (e.g., 1 Tim 3:11; Proverbs 31:11; )
  • prophesy (1 Tim 4:14) (e.g., 1 Cor 11:5; Acts 21:8-9)
  • stand firm in the faith (1 Peter 5:9) (e.g., 2 Tim 1:3-5)

1 Timothy 2:12

Many people’s views of 1 Timothy 2:12 assumes that the position of elder is essentially owned by men.  That is, if a woman becomes an elder, she “usurps” something that is a man’s.  Under any part of any of the above three views of scripture, though, such is not the case—i.e., men do not own the position of elder.  And you have to treat 1 Tim 3 and Titus 1 as a literal check-list for men to “own” the position of elder, too.  Not making that assumption means it simply becomes a question of individual usurpation, not usurpation of one sex from another sex.

It is relatively straightforward to see that Paul specifies the kind of teaching and authority to which Paul is referring in 1 Tim at the very beginning of his letter in 1 Tim and in 1 Tim 2:12b—not all kinds, but the kind that involves teaching in the manner of a teacher of the law (authoritatively), but that is ignorantly done and false, carried out in an assertive and domineering way and that disturbs the peace (1 Tim 1:3-7, 1 Tim 2:12b).  An elder functioning appropriately, male or female, does not do this.  Women in Ephesus likely needed a particular reminder about this, as some of them likely thought women were superior to men because the goddess Artemis, who was born before her male twin, dominated in many quarters in that city.

Conclusion for Part 2:  Female Elders

These are the main, independent approaches relative to considering female elders under scripture.  There are others and, of course, there is overlap among these in practice.

There are other considerations within scripture, such as having love for another and loving your neighbor, that are critical.  Bearing on those is how important it is for young girls to have female congregational leaders as role models, mentors, and guides and for young girls not to see its congregation engaged in systematic sex discrimination.  There was a recent study that found that having all male-congregational leaders was harmful to young girls in comparison to also having influential female congregational leaders.

It does not seem like it would take a study to know that having young girls witness systemic sex discrimination against themselves and their moms for years, carried out by their church, would harm many of them, spiritually, psychologically, and physically.  And having role models with which young girls can identify, in the form of female elders, is important for their spiritual and other development.

For the most part, the materials posted by Churches of Christ congregations do not go into detail on their reasoning on the question of elder.  They often simply run out of steam—it takes a lot of time and energy within the Churches of Christ denomination to address women’s roles in the church and the question of female elders, it appears to me, is often considered late or is put off because of the sensitivities associated with it.  Thus, the categories of reasoning described here are derived not just from their discussions, but mostly from other sources discussing scriptural analysis relative to female elders and my reading of the scripture.

What do you think about the scripture?

Can a female be an elder under scripture?  Why or why not?

What part does Galatians 3:28 play? —

“There is neither Jew nor Gentile, neither slave nor free, nor is there male and female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus.”

(Galatians 3:28)

 

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For part 1 of this article:  See Steve Gardner, “10 Churches of Christ Where Women Speak in the Assembly:  List and Links (Part 1),” AuthenticTheology.com (March 26, 2019).

Substantially Updated:  November 27, 2019 (added #4, edited)

Sources & Notes